We're regularly contacted by people asking us 'What is a
catastrophe bond?' or 'What is a cat bond?' so we thought we'd provide a
simple primer on the topic. Catastrophe bonds, also called cat bonds,
are an example of insurance securitization to create risk-linked
securities which transfer a specific set of risks (generally catastrophe
and natural disaster risks) from an issuer or sponsor to investors. In
this way investors take on the risks of a specified catastrophe or event
occuring in return for attractive rates of investment. Should a
qualifying catastrophe or event occur the investors will lose the
principal they invested and the issuer (often insurance or reinsurance
companies) will receive that money to cover their losses.
Catastrophe bonds were first issued in the mid 1990's, we have a
comprehensive database containing the details of nearly every (over 280)
catastrophe bond transaction.
Major catastrophe events which hit the U.S. such as the Northridge
eartquake and Hurricane Andrew were seen as events of such magnitude
that the insurance industry began to look for alternative methods to
hedge their risks and through collaboration with capital markets
companies catastrophe bonds were born.
One of the key elements of any catastrophe bond is the terms
under which the securities begin to experience a loss. Catastrophe bonds
utilise triggers with defined parameters which have to be met to start
accumulating losses. Only when these specific conditions are met do
investors begin to lose their investment. Triggers can be structured in
many ways from a sliding scale of actual losses experienced by the
issuer (indemnity) to a trigger which is activated when industry wide
losses from an event hit a certain point (industry loss trigger) to an
index of weather or disaster conditions which means actual catastrophe
conditions above a certain severity trigger a loss (parametric index
A catastrophe bond can be structured to provide per-occurrence
cover, so exposure to a single major loss event, or to provide aggregate
cover, exposure to multiple events over the course of each annual
Some catastrophe bond transactions work on a multiple loss
approach and so are only triggered (or portions of the deals are) by
second and subsequent events. This means that sponsors can issue a deal
that will only be triggered by a second landfalling hurricane to hit a
certain geographical location, for example.
The typical catastrophe bond structure sees a special purpose
vehicle or insurer (SPV or SPI) enter into a reinsurance agreement with a
sponsor (or counterparty), receiving premiums from the sponsor in
exchange for providing the coverage via the issued securities. The SPV
issues the securities to investors and receives principal amounts in
return. The principal is then deposited into a collateral account, where
they are typically invested in highly rated money market funds.
The investors coupon, or interest payments, are made up of
interest the SPV makes from the collateral and the premiums the sponsor
pays. If a qualifying event occurs which meets the trigger conditions to
activate a payout, the SPV will liquidate collateral required to make
the payment and reimburse the counterparty according to the terms of the
catastrophe bond transaction. If no trigger event occurs then the
collateral is liquidated at the end of the cat bond term and investors
The diagram below shows a typical catastrophe bond structure including where the capital flows from one party to another.
Catastrophe modelling is vital to catastrophe bond transactions
to provide analysis and measurement of events which could cause a loss
as well as to define the exposed geographical region.
Catastrophe bond structures have been used to hedge risks of
hurricane, earthquake, typhoon, European windstorm, thunderstorm, hail
and even life insurance related risks such as longevity and health
Read about recent and historic catastrophe bond transactions in our Deal Directory.
Keep up with the latest catastrophe bond news on our blog.